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Knee Pain Physiotherapy

Knee pain is a really common pain and complaint for many people. There are several factors that can lead to pain in one’s knees, so having awareness and knowledge of their causes can lead to a more accurate diagnosis.

Knee joint

Our knee joints are generally comprised of four (4) bones:

  • femur/femoral bone (thigh bone)
  • tibia (bone in the calf)
  • fibula (bone in the calf)
  • patella (the kneecap)

The knee is also divided into four (4) compartments:

  • medial tibiofemoral compartments
  • lateral tibiofemoral compartments
  • patellofemoral compartment
  • superior tibiofibular joint.

Each of these compartments’ components can suffer from repetitive strain injury or disease.

What are the common injuries that cause knee pain?

Some of the injuries that causes pain in our knees include the following:

  • Knee sprain (ligament sprains)
  • Medial collateral ligament injuries
  • Lateral collateral ligament injuries
  • Anterior cruciate ligament injuries
  • Posterior cruciate ligament injuries
  • Meniscus tear (medial or later or both)
  • Strain (Muscle strain)
  • Quadriceps muscles strain
  • Hamstring muscles strain
  • Popliteal muscle strain
  • Patellar tendon pull
  • Hamstring tendon pull
  • Popliteal tendon pull

What are the common diseases that cause knee pain?

Some of the diseases that can cause knee pain includes:

  • Knee osteoarthritis
  • Chondromalacia patella
  • Baker's cyst
  • Meniscal cyst
  • Discoid meniscus
  • Osgood-Schlatter disease
  • Larsen-Johansson disease
  • Knee rheumatoid arthritis
  • Osteochondritis dissecans disease
  • Tumors
  • Ankylosing spondylitis
  • Reiter's syndrome
  • Synovial chondromatosis disease
  • Tuberculosis arthritis
  • Septic arthritis (Pyogenic arthritis)
  • Osteomyelitis
  • Hemophilic arthritis
  • Gout (Gouty arthritis)

What are the common inflammations that cause knee pain?

  • Bursitis of the knee
  • Prepatellar bursitis - Housemaid's knee (most common)
  • Infrapatellar bursitis - Clergyman's knee (Superficial infrapatellar bursitis and Deep infrapatellar bursitis)
  • Tendinitis
  • Patellar tendinitis (Jumper's knee)
  • Hamstring tendinitis
  • Popliteal tendinitis
  • Semimembranosus bursitis
  • Synovitis of the knee

What are the common deformities of the knee?

  • Genu varum
  • Genu valgum
  • Genu recurvatum (Knee hyperextension)
  • Knee flexion deformity
  • Bipartite patella


  • Patellofemoral pain syndrome (Runner's knee)
  • Plica syndrome
  • Iliotibial band syndrome


  • Femoral fracture
  • Tibial fracture
  • Patella fracture


  • Patella dislocation
  • Knee joint dislocation (Tibiofemoral joint dislocation)

Referred knee pain

Referred pain refers to a pain that is "felt" at a different location compared to where the pain/injury actually is eg thigh injury can be referred to the knee as pain.

Often a patient's knee pain can be caused and/or referred by injuries to the ankle, back, hips or others, which is why

  • in-depth assessment of biomechanics, pain and injury history
  • differential diagnosis by knee physiotherapists is important

Cold-induced Pain In Knees

There are studies that suggest that knee pains or pains in knees are more common in people who:

  • live in places of colder temperatures and weather
  • working in cold stores compared to those who work in non-cold stores

Pain in knees due to cold can be caused by the knee tendon undergoing tenosynovitis (inflammation of the tendon-synovial sheath) either caused or aggravated by the cold temperature exposure.

Cold temperature may also increase stiffness in knee joints (physics, biomechanics and temperature), and especially so in patients who are already compromised with knee disorders or diseases such as:

  • fibromyalgia
  • osteoarthritis
  • knee injuries
  • rheumatoid arthritis

knee Pain that is caused by sedentary lifestyle (lack of mobility/exercise)

Individuals who do not move as much (sedentary) in their work or life seems to develop more knee pain.

The main underlying reason is when one isn't active in activities or lifestyle or work, and this decreases the load demand on the muscles of the body (including the knee).

This in turn leads to muscles in the knee becoming more weak and lax, and they do not support the knee joint and structure as well, and this in turn leads to increased bone-to/on-bone contact and impact, which can cause/aggravate osteoarthritis which can be very painful.

The blood vessels like arteries and veins can also be compressed, and this causes poor venous and arterial flows, which further causes more pains.

Other causes of knee pains

  • Ligamentous laxity
  • Fat pad impingement
  • Knee effusion
  • Deep vein thrombosis (DVT)
  • Peripheral vascular disease

Physiotherapy and Deep Tissue Release / Sports Massage Therapy for knee pains

To begins the healing process of all knee pains, the most important is:

  • to have a correct and accurate understanding, history and diagnosis of the knee pain
  • then to customize a patient-specific physiotherapy treatment program
  • and then implement over the course of 6-12 weeks (patients often feel knee pain relief from day 1)

Physiotherapy and management may include:

  • exercise therapy to increase muscle strength to support the knee
  • joint mobilization
  • soft tissue management
  • ultrasound therapy to accelerate soft tissue healing
  • heat therapy to increase joint flexibility
  • cold therapy to decrease inflammation and pain if any

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Phoenix Rehab Singapore Core Services And Specializations

Phoenix Rehab Group works with specialist physiotherapists and specialist rehab therapists who are highly trained, qualified, experienced and passionate to provide high level of expert care to our patients.


Patients who sustained injuries to their elbows, forearms, hands, wrists (sprains and fractures) and fingers, and requires Hand Therapy to increase the function of their hand following injuries or post-operations and custom made hand splints.


Clinical Pilates is a form of physical exercise that focuses on posture, core stability, balance, control, strength, flexibility, and breathing.

It is a system of safe and effective exercises, which meet specific individual needs, to treat a wide range of injuries and conditions.



Sports and deep tissue release massage helps to increase nutrient-rich blood flow to tired , tight and tense muscles to accelerate recovery and shorten downtime. It also helps prevents muscles from scar tissue micro-tears (and future ruptures), and increases muscle performance. When done regularly it will keeps your muscles and you healthy and fit and have body/movement-confidence.


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You can expect better fat loss and muscle gain, have reduced risks of injury, establish effective exercise and health habits as well as overcome those annoying "flatline plateus" to breakthrough to your next level of fitness and weight loss.

All our allied health therapists and TCM physicians are fully insured and registered with Allied Health Professions Council (AHPC) and Traditional Chinese Medicine Board (TCMB).

See our entire team here by location and specialization.

At the first session, our specialist physiotherapists will carry out a thorough assessment, helping them to select the most appropriate treatment to help you recover as well as provide treatment in the same session. 

Follow up sessions are inline to provide expert treatment for your pain as well as prescribing specific exercises to reduce your risk of re-injury and giving you a long term solution.

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