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Bone Pain Physiotherapy



Bone pain (also known medically by several other names) is pain coming from a bone. It occurs as a result of a wide range of diseases and/or physical conditions and may severely impair the quality of life.

Bone pain belongs to the class of deep somatic pain, often experienced as a dull pain that cannot be localized accurately by the patient. This is in contrast with the pain which is mediated by superficial receptors in, e.g., the skin. Bone pain can have several possible causes ranging from extensive physical stress to serious diseases such as cancer.

For many years it has been known that bones are innervated with sensory neurons. Yet their exact anatomy remained obscure due to the contrasting physical properties of bone and neural tissue. More recently, it is becoming clear what types of nerves innervated which sections of bone.

The periosteal layer of bone tissue is highly pain-sensitive and an important cause of pain in several disease conditions causing bone pain, like fractures, osteoarthritis, etc.

However, in certain diseases the endosteal and haversian nerve supply seems to play an important role, e.g. in osteomalacia, osteonecrosis, and other bone diseases. Thus there are several types of bone pain, each with many potential sources or origins of cause.

Causes

A number of diseases can cause bone pain, including the following:

  • Endocrine, such as hyperparathyroidism, osteoporosis, renal failure.
  • Gastrointestinal or systemic, such as celiac disease and non-celiac gluten sensitivity (both often occur without obvious digestive symptoms), inflammatory bowel disease (including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis).
  • Hematologic, such as Cushing's syndrome, histiocytosis, multiple myeloma and sickle cell anaemia.
  • Infectious, such as Lyme disease and osteomyelitis.
  • Neurological, such as spinal cord injury and vertebral degeneration.
  • Oncologic, such as bone metastasis and leukemia.
  • Rheumatic, such as ankylosing spondylitis, rheumatoid arthritis, gout
  • Others, such as fractures, osteoarthritis, Paget's disease of bone (also termed osteitis deformans or ambiguously, just Paget's disease).

Causes in children

  • Acute leukemia
  • Acute rheumatic fever, a very dangerous disease that can cause permanent cardiac damage
  • Untreated celiac disease, which can present without gastrointestinal symptoms
  • Fibromyalgia, which affects people of all ages.
  • Growing pains
  • Hypermobility syndrome can present with knee or ankle pain
  • Lupus
  • Henoch–Schönlein purpura
  • Fibrous dysplasia of bone
  • Infection
  • Injury such as a fracture
  • Inflammatory bowel disease
  • Juvenile idiopathic arthritis
  • Lyme disease, which is transmitted by ticks and is characterized by debilitating polyarthritis, neurologic symptoms, and erythema migrans
  • Lymphoma
  • Osteomalacia/rickets in adolescents
  • Osteosarcoma
  • Rickets
  • Septic arthritis, a severe infection of the joint that can lead to permanent joint damage.
  • Spondyloarthropathies.
  • Viral diseases, including the measles, influenza, mononucleosis, chickenpox, and mumps.

Common causes of bone and joint pain in adults, such as osteoarthritis and gouty arthritis are rare in children, as these diseases are a sequelae of chronic wear and tear for several years.

Cancer

Pain caused by cancer within bones is one of the most serious forms of pain. Because of its severity and uniqueness with respect to other forms of pain, it is extensively researched. According to studies of bone cancer in mouse femur models, it has been determined that bone pain related to cancer occurs as a result of destruction of bone tissue. Chemical changes that occur within the spinal cord as a result of bone destruction give further insight into the mechanism of bone pain.

Metastatic cancer cells often establish themselves within the skeleton. When the cancer cells have metastasized, the mechanical dynamics of the bone matrix become weaker as skeletal strength decreases. This leads to several other complications throughout the body including pain, thus decreasing the patient’s quality of life.

Bone tumors are composed of a conglomeration of cell types including cancer and immune system cells. Often tumor cells secrete growth factors which activate receptors close to primary afferent neurons.

Activation of these neural receptors is a contributing factor to pain sensation. Additionally, inflammatory lipids called prostaglandins, which are produced at high rates by cancer cells within tumors, activate nociceptors when they bind together.

Pathophysiology

Stimulation of specialized pain-sensitive nerve fibers (nociceptors) that innervate bone tissue leads to the sensation of bone pain. Bone pain originates from both the periosteum and the bone marrow which relay nociceptive signals to the brain creating the sensation of pain.

Bone tissue is innervated by both myelinated (A beta and A delta fiber) and unmyelinated (C fiber) sensory neurons. In combination, they can provide an initial burst of pain, initiated by the faster myelinated fibers, followed by a slower and longer-lasting dull pain initiated by unmyelinated fibers.

Nociceptors responsible for bone pain can be activated via several mechanisms including deterioration of surrounding tissue, bone destruction, and physical stress which shears the bone, vascular, muscle, and nervous tissue.

Treatment

The use of anesthetics within the actual bone has been a common treatment for several years. This method provides a direct approach using analgesics to relieve pain sensations.

Another commonly used method for treating bone pain is radiotherapy, which can be safely administered in low doses. Radiotherapy utilizes radioactive isotopes and other atomic particles to damage the DNA in cells, thus leading to cell death.

By targeting cancer tumors, radiotherapy can lead to decrease in tumor size and even tumor destruction. A form of radiotherapy that is often used in cases of bone cancer is systemic radioisotope therapy, where the radioisotopes target sections of the bone specifically undergoing metastasis.

In the case of bone fractures, surgical treatment is generally the most effective, followed with fractures physiotherapy. Analgesics can be used in conjunction with surgery to help ease pain of damaged bone.



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Phoenix Rehab Physio Services

Phoenix Rehab Group works with specialist physiotherapists and rehab therapists who are highly trained, qualified, experienced and passionate to provide high level of expert care to our patients.



HAND THERAPY & CUSTOMIZED SPLINTING

Patients who sustained injuries to their elbows, forearms, hands, wrists (sprains and fractures) and fingers, usually will benefit / require Hand Therapy to

  1. manage and decrease hand pains
  2. improve range of motion, strength and dexterity
  3. increase the function of their hand following injuries or post-operations

Commonly treated hand pain injuries includes



REFORMER CLINICAL PILATES & WELLNESS PILATES

Clinical Pilates is a form of physical exercise that focuses on posture, core stability, balance, control, strength, flexibility and breathing.

It is a system of safe and effective exercises, which meet specific individual needs, to treat a wide range of injuries and conditions.

You may do Pilates as matwork or with the reformer or both, and every session will be customized 100% to your fitness, injury and tolerance.



TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE (TCM)

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DEEP TISSUE RELEASE & SPORTS MASSAGE THERAPY

Sports and deep tissue release massage helps to increase nutrient-rich blood flow to tired, tight and tense muscles to accelerate recovery and  shorten downtime / recovery period required.

It also prevents muscles from scar tissue micro-tears (and potential ruptures), and increases muscle performance. Having regular deep tissue and sports massage will keep your muscles healthy and fit with body/movement-confidence.

Read the benefits of regular deep tissue release therapy here.



ALTERNATIVE THERAPIES

All our allied health therapists and TCM physicians are fully insured and registered with Allied Health Professions Council (AHPC) and Traditional Chinese Medicine Board (TCMB).

See our entire team here with introductions and their specializations.

At the first session, our specialist physiotherapists will carry out a thorough assessment, helping them to select the most appropriate treatment to help you recover as well as provide treatment in the same session.

Follow up sessions are inline to provide expert treatment for your pain as well as prescribing specific exercises to reduce your risk of re-injury and giving you a long term solution.

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